BNL Physics Department Videos

Physics Colloquium of 31 January 2023
"Predicting QCD dynamics at the High-Luminosity LHC"
Alba Soto Ontoso, CERN

The Large Hadron Collider is currently running at its highest energy and luminosity. To exploit maximally the potential of this precise dataset to uncover physics beyond the Standard Model, it is of crucial importance to develop tools that faithfully characterize QCD dynamics. The large energy range accessible at the LHC provides a multi-scale probe of QCD, including the transition from the perturbative to the hadronisation regime. In this talk, I will discuss two complementary approaches to describe the perturbative component of collider events. First, I will focus on the accuracy of semi-analytic approaches based on logarithmic resummation and revisit the calculation of the average jet multiplicity, one of the most fundamental observables studied in collider physics. Alternatively, Monte Carlo event generators provide a fully exclusive description of collider events. I will present recent advances on improving the accuracy of their parton shower component and discuss the connection with analytic resummation. The last part of this talk will focus on another component of Monte Carlo generators, namely the description of multi-parton interactions and a novel data-driven proposal for their characterization.

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Physics Colloquium of 24 January 2023
"Special Colloquium: Summary of 2022-2023 African School of Physics short-term visits for research"
Ketevi Assamagan et al., BNL and other

The African School of Physics (ASP) consists of series activities to support the academic growth of African students. One activity is the short-term visit for research program where alumni of ASP spend 3-6 at BNL for research. Nine ASP alumni came to BNL between July and December 2019. The program resumed in 2022 when 6 ASP alumni have come to BNL for the period of August 2022 to February 2023. They are placed within different research groups and assigned research advisors according to their majors and physics interests. This program is supported by DOE, the BNL Diversity Office, Nuclear & Particle Physics Diversity Council and the departments and research groups that hosted participants.

In this talk, we have short presentations by ASP alumni (cohort of 2022) on the work they have been doing during their stay at BNL:

1. Dr. Kayode Dada (Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria), CFN, "Indentation Technique for the Examination of Nanomechanical Properties of Human Tissues"

2. Rado Fanantenana Razakamiandra (University of Antananarivo, Madagascar), EDG, "Universal performance analysis of the DUNE Front-End Mother Boards for quality control"

3. Antalia Ariel Rabarisoa (University of Antananarivo, Madagascar), EDG, "Analysis of QC results from the DUNE LArASIC chip testing"

4. Asmaa Aboulhorma (Mohammed V University, Morocco), Omega Group, "Search for Beyond-Standard-Model (BSM) Higgs boson decay to 2l2j with the ATLAS detector at the LHC"

5. Xola Mapekula (University of Johannesburg, South Africa), Omega Group, "Improving discovery potential of Beyond Standard Model Physics through detector, software and analysis techniques"

6. Zainab Soumaimi (Mohammed V University, Morocco), Omega Group, "Slow control system development for the thermal cycle of the ITk Strip staves"

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Physics Colloquium of 17 January 2023
"Nuclear Tomography through Entanglement-Enabled Spin Interference"
Daniel Brandenburg, Ohio State University

Photonuclear processes have been understood for decades to be a golden channel for performing tomography of the gluon density and spatial distribution within nucleons and nuclei. However, measurements of the nuclear mass radii of Gold and Lead nuclei from photonuclear processes in ultra-relativistic A+A collisions have produced unexplainably large values, inconsistent with low-energy results and theoretical expectations. This puzzle persisted for two decades without resolution until the discovery of the Breit-Wheeler process shed new light on this confounding situation by demonstrating that the photons manifest from ultra-Lorentz contracted electromagnetic field are linearly polarized. In photonuclear A+A interactions, the polarization (spin) of the coherent photons turns out to be a crucial ingredient. In this talk I will present a unique spin interference pattern in the angular distribution of rho meson decays from diffractive photonuclear interactions. The observed interference is a result of an overlap of two wave functions at a distance an order of magnitude larger than the rho meson travel distance within its lifetime - requiring that any interference occur between the daughter particles. Crucially, this novel type of quantum interference between distinguishable particles is only possible when the particles are entangled. Next, I will discuss how this entanglement-enabled spin interference (EESI) effect resolves the 20-year puzzle of unreasonably large nuclear radii extracted from photonuclear A+A interactions. The newfound sub-femtoscale precision of the EESI technique is demonstrated through the first high-energy measurement of the nuclear mass radii and the neutron skins of Gold and Uranium nuclei. Finally, I will discuss applications of this new technique for further probing gluon dynamics within large nuclei at RHIC and the future Electron Ion Collider.

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Physics Colloquium of 10 January 2023
"The Many Incarnations of Dark Energy"
Mark Trodden, Univ. of Pennsylvania

I will discuss dark energy in a broad sense. I will begin with a general-level overview of the issues surrounding the accelerating universe, and will describe the theoretical challenges to constructing a viable explanation for the data. I will take the approach of effective field theory, and will describe how we think about new cosmological degrees of freedom in this context, and how knowledge from field theory should inform our thinking about cosmological models in general. In the second part of the talk, I will then focus on the topic of early dark energy in the context of the above discussion. I will describe some recent work trying to understand how we might address the fine-tuning problems of some attempts to address the Hubble tension, and sketch some details of the neutrino-assisted Early Dark Energy and Chameleon Early Dark Energy approaches.

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Physics Colloquium of 3 January 2023
"The incredible journey of IBS-CAPP in South Korea towards DFSZ sensitivity in axion dark matter search"
Yannis Semertzidis, KAIST, S. Korea

One of the top-ten Particle/Nuclear Physics questions today is the nature of dark matter. Axion, a consequence of the solution to the Strong-CP problem, is one leading candidate with very small coupling to regular matter and hard to observe, hence it was called the "invisible" axion, when it was first proposed. Pierre Sikivie suggested a method to observe this particle but the early attempts at BNL proved it would be a long time before theoretically interesting sensitivities are reached. The Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS-CAPP) of South Korea was established to change that. We have applied a Particle-Physics approach to the problem with a massive parallel R&D effort focused on important innovations that could make the difference. Today we can be optimistic about the 1-8 GHz axion frequency range within the next five years and reasonably so to extend this reach to 25 GHz within the next ten years. I am going to show the approach we took, our failures, and successes and the lessons learned on how to conquer a difficult but important science field.

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Physics Colloquium of 20 December 2022
"Report of the Snowmass'21 Collider Implementation Task Force"
Thomas Roser, BNL

The Snowmass'21 Implementation Task Force has been established to evaluate the proposed future accelerator projects for performance, technology readiness, schedule, cost, and environmental impact. Corresponding metrics has been developed for uniform comparison of the proposals ranging from Higgs/EW factories to multi-TeV lepton, hadron and ep collider facilities, based on traditional and advanced acceleration technologies. This talk based on the report (arXiv:2208.06030) documents the metrics and processes, and presents evaluations of future colliders performed by the Implementation Task Force.

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Physics Colloquium of 13 December 2022
"From Bell inequalities to quantum information science and technology: some perspective on the 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics"
Tzu-Chieh Wei, SBU

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger "for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science." The inequality derived by Bell in 1964 and later by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt provided a setup potentially testable experimentally on the issue whether quantum mechanics or classical local realistic theory is the correct theory, which was raised in a paper by Einstein, Poldoskly and Rosen in 1935, "Can Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?" The experiments by Clauser, later by Aspect and more extensively by Zeilinger demonstrated the violation of the inequalities and supported that quantum mechanical entanglement is a physical phenomenon that cannot be explained by classical theory. These pioneering experiments on quantum entanglement stimulated the emergence of a new and interdisciplinary field, which, by now, is known as quantum information science. The theoretical, experimental and technological development has come a long way and, unimaginable decades ago, there now exist controllable quantum systems over one hundred quantum bits available and this opens up possibilities of using quantum computers to solve difficult problems and advance science and technology. In this talk, I will first describe the story behind the Bell inequalities and then give a bird's-eye view of selected developments in quantum information. If time permits, I will describe some of my own research results, including the use of noisy intermediate-scale of quantum computers.

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Physics Colloquium of 6 December 2022
"The dance of the muon"
Aida X. El-Khadra, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

More than eighty years after the muon was first identified it may become a window to discovering new physics. In April 2021, the Fermilab experiment announced, to worldwide media attention, a new measurement of the muon's magnetic moment with an exquisite precision of 352 parts per billion, sharpening the longstanding tension between experiment and theory to a tantalizing 4.2 standard deviations. The experimental measurements will continue to improve with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainties by a factor of four. The theoretical calculations of the muon's magnetic moment must account for the virtual effects of all particles and forces within the Standard Model, where effects coming from virtual hadrons, governed by the strong interactions, are the by far largest sources of theory uncertainty. I will discuss the ongoing interplay between theory and experiment that is essential to unlocking the discovery potential of this effort.

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Other Listings

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